Cyber-Space: Doubling the Legal Complexities?

Cyber operations directed to space infrastructures have brought new legal challenges. Cyber operations conducted on earth, to enable satellites to function or malfunction in outer space, are deemed to be outer space activities and thus International law in this field applies to these operations. In the event of cyber attacks on its space assets, a victim state will face a conundrum of how to legally assess the attacks and to respond to an offender, in the light of relevant space law treaty provisions and other rules of general international law. However, it is far from easy to interpret and apply them given that state jurisdiction is exercised in outer space in a different manner than other domains. This session explores topics such as how to sort out responsibility and liability arising from cyber attacks on space assets among all countries concerned and how NATO allies can proceed with legal evaluation problem.