New Space and Armed Conflict

The war in Ukraine has underlined the significance of private-owned satellite communications for sustaining both the civilian population and the military effort in armed conflict. Despite public statements, the only major malicious cyber operation in this conflict against space infrastructure appears to have been the KA-SAT network attack.

What does it take to target private-owned space infrastructure lawfully? How does the industry prepare for the eventuality of having its infrastructure aimed at by belligerent parties? What should states do in response to malicious activity against commercial satellites?