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Gold Sponsor Session: Fusing AI and Design for Cyber Defence

This session will focus on the problem of defending critical infrastructure against extreme cyber attacks. Such attacks lead an adversary deep into the plant from where attacks can be launched directly on one or more plant components. While it is necessary to detect the anomalies resulting from such attacks, it is not sufficient to protect the compromised plant against damage and service disruption. We will describe how fusing AI and plant design can lead to a system highly resilient to extreme cyber-attacks.

Diamond Sponsor Keynote*

Opening Keynotes Session (cont.)*

AI – State of the Myth

This panel will delve into the forefront of applications of AI in intrusion detection systems, as well as explore the current limitations of known methods in the fields of artificial intelligence and machine learning. 

Are Offensive Operations the Best Defence?

Threats to national security and the well-being of a state’s citizens are rife in the cyber domain. These threats can take the of non-conventional means such as ransomware operations in which the intent is financial gain, or operations designed to intentionally limit functionality of crucial systems. These threats manifest in operations carried out by States or State affiliated actors, or indeed criminal actors that may be protected by the State. Penalizing States for their own actions or for breaking with the fundamental concept of state, however, is fraught with challenges and complications, and risk of collateral damage and escalation of tensions. 

How can states deter malicious cyber activities, and what role can offensive cyber operations or the threat of such operations play in that? This Panel will examine these challenges and potential means of mitigating them, and perhaps even suggest novel approaches. Is the established concept of deterrence due for an overhaul? How should NATO address interoperability of cyber operations? Can they be mitigated through policy or the use of force? 

Automation in Malware Analysis

As attackers deploy automation on attack side, the number of detected threats grow in combinatorial explosion and exhaust any capacity of human analyst resources. This panel will explore the topic of malware analysis with special focus to automation. 

Shaping Resilience

The concept of ‘cyber resilience’ has become a central one in cyber defence strategies and cyber regulation. But what does cyber resilience really entail and how can it be achieved? And are strategy, policy, and technology experts chasing the right goal? Once these complicated questions are answered, we are still left with the challenge of how to practice and build the necessary tolerance. 

In this session our three authors explore two ways to build resilience, exercises and public-private partnerships, and also take a critical look at what the concept means and if there is really a difference between cyber resilience and cyber security. 

New Technology and State Responsibility

Emerging technologies bring new phenomena where the existing legal framework is difficult to be applied and so it has yet to be figured out how to invoke responsibility in these situations. Opportunities and risks deriving from such emerging technologies, such as enhanced cyber capabilities and unintended consequences of State cyber activities, should be both considered in order to find a fair balance of all relevant interests involved, so that international law may prevent conflicts between different States. Thus, this panel will explore the different facets of responsibility for operations conducted by emerging technologies with a view to shaping who – and how – a State can be considered as responsible.   

Cyber-Space: Doubling the Legal Complexities?

Cyber operations directed to space infrastructures have brought new legal challenges. Cyber operations conducted on earth, to enable satellites to function or malfunction in outer space, are deemed to be outer space activities and thus International law in this field applies to these operations. In the event of cyber attacks on its space assets, a victim state will face a conundrum of how to legally assess the attacks and to respond to an offender, in the light of relevant space law treaty provisions and other rules of general international law. However, it is far from easy to interpret and apply them given that state jurisdiction is exercised in outer space in a different manner than other domains. This session explores topics such as how to sort out responsibility and liability arising from cyber attacks on space assets among all countries concerned and how NATO allies can proceed with legal evaluation problem.     

Book Launch: The Rights to Privacy and Data Protection in Times of Armed Conflict*

Recent armed conflicts in Iraq, Afghanistan, Palestine, and Ukraine have demonstrated the profound risks posed to the rights to privacy and data protection in contemporary warfare. Technological advances in the fields of electronic surveillance, predictive algorithms, big data analytics, user-generated evidence, artificial intelligence, cloud storage, facial recognition, and cryptography are redefining the scope, nature, and contours of military operations. Against this backdrop, international humanitarian law offers very few, if any, lex specialis rules for the lawful processing, analysis, dissemination, and retention of personal information.

CCDCOE is proud to publish “The Rights to Privacy and Data Protection in Times of Armed Conflict,” a 15-chapter anthology produced by leading academics and practitioners and co-edited by Russell Buchan (University of Sheffield) and Asaf Lubin (Indiana University) with support from the Ostrom Workshop. The book offers a first-of-its-kind account of the current and potential future application of digital rights in conflict situations. This book launch will feature a panel discussion by the book’s editors with senior commentators about topics and themes covered in the new book.   

Break

Coffee break

Lunch

Coffee break

Opening Remarks and Keynote Session*

Tallinn walking tour: Late night special

Starting place:
Nordic Hotel Forum (Viru väljak 3, Tallinn)

Tallinn Old Town, a UNESCO world heritage site, is considered to be the best-preserved medieval town in Northern Europe. Within its thick walls, its centuries-old towers and buildings with their red rooftops, its hidden courtyards and winding cobblestone streets, lingers a unique charm that is hard to resist.
Join our guides and enjoy a delightful stroll through these romantic cobblestone streets to discover Tallinn’s history, architecture, legends and many more aspects of its past and present life.

The tour is in English and last about 1.5 hours.

Please remember to wear comfortable shoes, as Tallinn Old Town’s cobblestone streets are not made for high heels!

Tallinn walking tour

Starting place:
Nordic Hotel Forum (Viru väljak 3, Tallinn)

Tallinn Old Town, a UNESCO world heritage site, is considered to be the best-preserved medieval town in Northern Europe. Within its thick walls, its centuries-old towers and buildings with their red rooftops, its hidden courtyards and winding cobblestone streets, lingers a unique charm that is hard to resist.
Join our guides and enjoy a delightful stroll through these romantic cobblestone streets to discover Tallinn’s history, architecture, legends and many more aspects of its past and present life.

The tour is in English and last about 1.5 hours.

Please remember to wear comfortable shoes, as Tallinn Old Town’s cobblestone streets are not made for high heels!